Storage

This module provides a Django File API for Google Cloud Storage.

Installation and Authentication

First, follow the instructions to install, authenticate and (if necessary) set your project.

Create bucket(s)

This library doesn’t create buckets for you: infrastructure operations should be kept separate and dealt with using tools built for the purpose, like terraform or Deployment Manager.

If you’re setting up for the first time and don’t want to get into that kind of infrastructure-as-code stuff, then manually create two buckets in your project:

  • One with object-level permissions for media files.

  • One with uniform, public permissions for static files.

Tip

Having two buckets like this means it’s easier to configure which files are public and which aren’t. Plus, you can serve your static files much more efficiently - publicly shared files are cached in google’s cloud CDN, so they’re lightning quick for users to download, and egress costs you amost nothing.

Tip

To make it easy and consistent to set up (and remember which is which!), we always use kebab case for our bucket names in the form:

<app>-<purpose>-<environment>-<media-or-static>

The buckets for a staging environment in one of our apps look like this:

Buckets configuration

Setup Media and Static Storage

The most common types of storage are for media and static files. We derived a custom storage type for each, making it easier to name them.

In your settings.py file, do:

# Set the default storage (for media files)
DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = "django_gcp.storage.GoogleCloudMediaStorage"
GCP_STORAGE_MEDIA = {
    "bucket_name": "app-assets-environment-media" # Or whatever name you chose
}

# Set the static file storage
#   This allows `manage.py collectstatic` to automatically upload your static files
STATICFILES_STORAGE = "django_gcp.storage.GoogleCloudStaticStorage"
GCP_STORAGE_STATIC = {
  "bucket_name": "app-assets-environment-static" # or whatever name you chose
}

# Point the urls to the store locations
#   You could customise the base URLs later with your own cdn, eg https://static.you.com
#   But that's only if you feel like being ultra fancy
MEDIA_URL = f"https://storage.googleapis.com/{GCP_STORAGE_MEDIA_NAME}/"
MEDIA_ROOT = "/media/"
STATIC_URL = f"https://storage.googleapis.com/{GCP_STORAGE_STATIC_NAME}/"
STATIC_ROOT = "/static/"

Usage

Any number of extra stores can be added, each corresponding to a different bucket in GCS.

You’ll need to give each one a “storage key” to identify it. In your settings.py, include extra stores as:

GCP_STORAGE_EXTRA_STORES = {
    "my_fun_store_key": {
        "bucket_name": "all-the-fun-datafiles"
    },
    "my_sad_store_key": {
        "bucket_name": "all-the-sad-datafiles"
    }
}

Storage Settings Options

Each store can be set up with different options, passed within the dict given to GCP_STORAGE_MEDIA, GCP_STORAGE_STATIC or within the dicts given to GCP_STORAGE_EXTRA_STORES.

For example, to set the media storage up so that files go to a different location than the root of the bucket, you’d use:

GCP_STORAGE_MEDIA = {
    "bucket_name": "app-assets-environment-media"
    "location": "not/the/bucket/root/",
    # ... and whatever other options you want
}

The full range of options (and their defaults, which apply to all stores) is as follows:

gzip

Type: boolean

Default: False

Whether or not to enable gzipping of content types specified by GZIP_CONTENT_TYPES

gzip_content_types

Type: tuple

Default: (text/css, text/javascript, application/javascript, application/x-javascript, image/svg+xml)

Content types which will be gzipped when GCP_STORAGE_IS_GZIPPED is True

default_acl

Type: string or None

Default: None

ACL used when creating a new blob, from the list of predefined ACLs. (A “JSON API” ACL is preferred but an “XML API/gsutil” ACL will be translated.)

For most cases, the blob will need to be set to the publicRead ACL in order for the file to be viewed. If GCP_STORAGE_DEFAULT_ACL is not set, the blob will have the default permissions set by the bucket.

publicRead files will return a public, non-expiring url. All other files return a signed (expiring) url.

ACL Options are: projectPrivate, bucketOwnerRead, bucketOwnerFullControl, private, authenticatedRead, publicRead, publicReadWrite

Note

GCP_STORAGE_DEFAULT_ACL must be set to ‘publicRead’ to return a public url. Even if you set the bucket to public or set the file permissions directly in GCS to public.

Note

When using this setting, make sure you have fine-grained access control enabled on your bucket, as opposed to Uniform access control, or else, file uploads will return with HTTP 400. If you already have a bucket with Uniform access control set to public read, please keep GCP_STORAGE_DEFAULT_ACL to None and set GCP_STORAGE_QUERYSTRING_AUTH to False.

querystring_auth

Type: boolean Default: True

If set to False it forces the url not to be signed. This setting is useful if you need to have a bucket configured with Uniform access control configured with public read. In that case you should force the flag GCP_STORAGE_QUERYSTRING_AUTH = False and GCP_STORAGE_DEFAULT_ACL = None

file_overwrite

Type: boolean Default: True

By default files with the same name will overwrite each other. Set this to False to have extra characters appended.

max_memory_size

Type: integer Default: 0 (do not roll over)

The maximum amount of memory a returned file can take up (in bytes) before being rolled over into a temporary file on disk. Default is 0: Do not roll over.

blob_chunk_size

Type: integer or None Default None

The size of blob chunks that are sent via resumable upload. If this is not set then the generated request must fit in memory. Recommended if you are going to be uploading large files.

Note

This must be a multiple of 256K (1024 * 256)

object_parameters

Type: dict Default: {}

Dictionary of key-value pairs mapping from blob property name to value.

Use this to set parameters on all objects. To set these on a per-object basis, subclass the backend and override GoogleCloudStorage.get_object_parameters.

The valid property names are

acl
cache_control
content_disposition
content_encoding
content_language
content_type
metadata
storage_class

If not set, the content_type property will be guessed.

If set, acl overrides GCP_STORAGE_DEFAULT_ACL.

Warning

Do not set name. This is set automatically based on the filename.

custom_endpoint

Type: string or None Default: None

Sets a custom endpoint, that will be used instead of https://storage.googleapis.com when generating URLs for files.

location

Type: string Default: ""

Subdirectory in which the files will be stored. Defaults to the root of the bucket.

expiration

Type: datetime.timedelta datetime.datetime, integer (seconds since epoch) Default: timedelta(seconds=86400)

The time that a generated URL is valid before expiration. The default is 1 day. Public files will return a url that does not expire. Files will be signed by the credentials provided during authentication.

The GCP_STORAGE_EXPIRATION value is handled by the underlying Google library. It supports timedelta, datetime, or integer seconds since epoch time.